Optimisation methods aim to find the best solution from a set of feasible solutions. Linear programming, integer programming, nonlinear programming, and dynamic programming are examples of optimisation techniques used in OR. Examples of minimising and maximising optimisation:  

Minimising Error: In machine learning and statistical modelling, practitioners often aim to minimise prediction error. This involves optimising model parameters to improve the accuracy of predications on unseen data while avoiding overfitting.   

Maximising Resource Allocation: Governments and organisations may seek to maximise the allocation of resources to achieve specific objectives. For insistence, a government might aim to maximise the number of people who have access to clean water within a given budget constraint by optimising the allocation of funds across different water infrastructure projects.